Introduction
Growth in poultry sector can contribute to enhanced nutrition and poverty reduction in Pakistan, because a large share of the rural poor is dependent on poultry for food and income. Traditional medicines have the potential to improve the growth as well as health status of the birds. Ethno veterinary practices involve the traditional beliefs, knowledge, practices and skills pertaining to healthcare and management of livestock and poultry. Ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM) system, an indigenous knowledge on animal health is re-emerging as holistic animal health care. EVM is widely utilized by the family poultry producers across the country. Poultry diseases majorly affect village chicken production.Antibiotics resistance, residues and withdrawal periods is major problem that affect export marketing.

Their role in organic egg and meat production, plant and plant products can serve as an indispensable source of medicine for indigenous poultry production system. The inherent utility and practical application of indigenous medicinal herbs/plant extract (garlic, cinnamon, tulsi, turmeric, lemon, naeem, etc.) are used to improving poultry health as well as production with fruitful results.

Advantage:

  • Reduces Antibiotics use
  • Traditional practice of herbal medicines for poultry health management can       diminish the cost of production thereby give more benefit to the farmers.
  • Farmers’ self-dependence.
  • Preserve herbs.
  • User friendly, Eco friendly.
  • Provide some intervention for viral diseases.

Anti-bacterial/ antiviral/ Antiseptic:

1.Turmeric – (Curcuma longa) – curcuminoids

2.Garlic – Anti viral – Allium sativum – sulfur-containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylpolysulfides, vinyldithiins, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction products
3.Neem – (Azadirachtaindica):
Neem is important herbal medicine having different active principle azadrachtin, nimbin, salanin, melicin, etc. Neem oil is selectively activates the cell mediated immune response by activating macrophage and lymphocytes. Apart from this have wide range of pharmacological activities

NEEM PRODUCTS

Leaves:
Fowl pox –Turmeric and neem paste for external application.
Oil:
Fly control -As spray on litter
Dried fruit:
Immuno stimulant -0.5 to 1 kg per tonne of poultry feed
Thyme oil (thymus vulgaris) – Antibacterial.
Turmric, Black pepper, thyme used to effective control of clostridium perfringens and enterobacteria.
4. Carica papaya which lyse the bacteria by papain enzyme
5. Sweet flag (Vasambu) – Acoruscalamus – α-, β- and γ- asarone, sequesterpenes and acorenone
6. Kuppaimeni (Acalyphaindica) – acalyphineandtriacetoneamine
7. Vettukaayapoondu (Tridaxprocumbens) – 3,6-dimethoxy-5,7,2′,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone 7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside.
8. Deva-5 is a herb formulation composed of five herbs namely MomordicacochinchinensisL., Gentianadecumbens L., Polygonumbistorta L., Hypecoumerectum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz showed in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8. Alchemillamollis extract synergistically potentiates the anti-influenza effect of zanamivir.
9. Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annual) extracts inhibited the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) proliferation in chicken embryos without causing side effects.
10. Essential oils derived from peppermint and eucalyptus showed protective action in broilers against multiple respiratory pathogens mainly Mycoplasma gallisepticum and H9N2 influenza virus infections.

 

Liver stimulant/ hepatoprotective:

1. Keelanelli (Phyllanthusniruri) – lavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins .
2. Vellaikarisaali (Ecliptaprostrata) – coumestans
Herbs for respiratory ailment:
1. Adathoda (Justiciaadhatoda) – vasicine
2.Tulsi – (Ocimumtenuiflorum) – oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid
3.Karpooravalli – Plectranthusamboinicus- Thymol(41.3%), cineol(13.25%), carvacrol(5.45%), eugenol(4.4%), and caryophyllene(4.2%)
4.Thoothuvali – (Solanumtrilobatum) – flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugar, sterols, tannins, alkaloids and saponins.

Anti-coccidials:
Vast usage of sulphanamide, ionophorous antibiotics, amprolium or synthetic chemical compounds for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry results in emergence of drug-resistant strains and antibiotic residues in poultry meat posing serious problems to the meat consumers. Sinomeniumacutum, sage, Garlic, Aloe vera

Herbs for Ectoparasites:
Common temporary external parasites of poultry include fowl ticks (also known as blue bugs), bed bugs and chicken mites (also known as red mites or roost mites). The use of chemicals viz., hydrocarbons, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids are found not to be free from adverse effects of toxicity to human, added up drug resistance by target parasites and high cost of drugs, paving the way for herbal alternatives.
Cinnamon oil has shown anti-parasitic activity against Trichomonas, Histomonasmeleagridis and head lice in chicken. Allium cepa (onion) has proven pronounced anti-parasitic activity against many helminthes and protozoa such as, Trichinellaspiralis and Leishmania sp. For preventing lice in ducks, drop the bulb in the bird’s drinking water and for chickens green leaves (spring onions) can be used to be picked by the birds.
Chopped seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) are shown to be good for the control of tapeworms in laying hens.
• Sweet flag (Vasambu), Purasathalai

Immunostimulants
Modulation of immune response to alleviate diseases has since long been of great interest to researchers. Medicinal plants are a rich source of substances which are claimed to induce immunity, thereby stimulating the non-specific immunomodulation, essentially granulocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells and complement functions
Ashwagandha(Withaniasomnifera) is one of the well-known medicinal plants. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this plant, among which the important one is the steroidal lactone called Withanolides, having antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities
Neem (Azadirachtaindica) is another immunomodulatory herb that has shown marked influence on the haematological parameters in birds like haemoglobin, PCV and RBC indices.
Wild mint (Menthalongifolia) has been found to enhance immunity especially in broiler chicks in addition to the improvement in growth performance, feed conversion ratio and gross return. Echinacea sp., Glycyrrhizaglabra (Liquorice), Allium sativum (garlic) and Uncariatomentosa (Cat’s claw) and they can improve the functions of lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells a s well as increase phagocytosis and stimulate the interferon synthesis

Herbs for Other conditions

1. Amla (Phyllanthusemblica) – ascorbic acid(vitamin C) – Immunostimulant.
– Antistress – 1 kg per tonne of poultry feed during summer
2. Betel leaves – Vetrilai (Piper betle) – Gout
3. Banana stem – Gout
4. Small onion: Growth promoter -1 kg per tonne of chick feed.
5. Fowl pox – Neem bark @ 1kg/1000 birds to be given after soaking in water, over-night and Naeem leaves as top dressing.

Conclusion
Herbs can be used as a good alternative therapeutic aid to costly allopathic medicines/chemotherapy and boosting immune functions in intoxicated conditions and can also effectively complement allopathic medicines in diseased state. Ethno-veterinary practices using plant products are effective against some diseases. These plant products are locally available and free or very cheap. These will all together improve prospects of this traditional wealth towards modern medicines, drugs and health care products derived from their origin to improve the market potential and commercialization aspects at global level.