All the management practices before brooding or before receiving the chicks in other sense various measures, which we provide in preparation for new-hatched chicks arriving at our farm.
We will discuss various factors, which play very important role in the process of pre-brooding management and main purpose of this process is to avoid different diseases, which cause great economical losses due to poor management practices, Prevention is most and best economical method of disease control. Prevention is best achieved by the use of sanitation and bio- security programs.
Poultry house sanitation begins with a clean sanitized house prepared well in advance of arrival of chicks. Each house should remain empty at least two weeks after, it is disinfected and fumigated .The effectiveness of sanitizing a house is depended upon extend of the cleaning before the germicide is applied. This cleaning helps to control disease because,
a) It reduces number of pathogenic organisms.
b) Remove organic matter that helps in multiplication of pathogens.
c) Expose surface to the disinfectant and fumigants.
Phases in the Procedure
In the process of pre-brooding management following measures are generally considered for taking good results.
A-Selection of area
Most important factors, is the selection of area in the shed .By reducing the amount of space dedicated to brooding, one can conserve the amount of heat required and reduce energy costs. In addition, correct temperatures are more easily maintained in a small area.
There is no hope of overall hygiene process being fully effective if there is any debris left in the house. There are basics flaws in the construction allowing penetration of the structure by the pathogens for example previous services, poor protection of joints wear on floors and inaccessibility of certain parts such as ventilators. The cleaning process must involve following.
- Removal of litter
Old litter should remove from the poultry house if it is piled near the house, rats and vermin may carry disease back into the house.
- E-Dusting/Web removal
Once litter has been removed the next priority should be removal of numerous spider web that bloom here and there on walls, flying birds often enter in the sheds and build nests in ceiling, these should be removed.
- Clean out old feed
Unused feed should not hold over from one brood of birds to the next feed bins and feeders should be completely cleaned.
- Clean the equipment
All equipment must be washed and disinfected with KMNO4. The equipment should be moved outside the house in sun an area inside the fenced enclosure to complete the cleaning process. After drying, the equipment should be moved back into the house.
- House ceiling and walls
Remove dusty walls and ceiling with moderate volume of water. Using boiling water is most effective and economical method for disinfection purpose.
A basic essential is that disinfection programmed must be most carefully planned. The disinfection of a building implies the elimination from the house all microorganism that are capable of causing disease. Follow the manufacture instruction carefully and make sure that the disinfection has proven result against the pathogens.
This is the very important procedure to give a final boost to the disinfection program, at this stage the house is setup ready for the next flock for this purpose formaldehyde gas is most suitable. The shed should be properly sealed before fumigation, 17.5 gram Kmno4 and 35 CC (for 100 Cubic Feet) formalin can be used for fumigation.
E-Provision of material
Put the litter in the selected area, there should be ample supply of relevant material e.g rice husk.Litter must be absorbent, lightweight, inexpensive and non-toxic. Litter characteristics should also lend to post production applications whether for use as compost, fertilizer or fuel. Try to cover litter material by paper so that chicks cannot eat it in the beginning.
For starter you may use ground maize, which is easily digestible and due to its high fiber content reduce pasting problem. It is a good source of energy.
In case you are using kerosene oil, wood or coal burning brooders, you should have stocks of relevant fuel.
iv) Equipment testing
Never forget to check the functional capability of your brooders. The burners should be controlled properly. The gas or electric supply should be proper.
ARRIVAL OF CHICKS
Following precautionary measures may be undertaken at the arrival of chicks.
i) The chicks should be arrive early in the morning so that you have full day to observe them and take care of them.
ii) Place the chick guard (2-3 feet from the edge and increase area weekly this will reduce cannibalism and increase feed utilization.
iii) Do flushing at start for this use 250gm sugar/gallon of water, which provide energy to chick and clear the digestive tract.
iv) Use certain broad-spectrum antibiotics for 5 days. If chicks are healthy, then use for 3 days and if there is infection then give about for 5 days to reduce the outbreak.e.g:
Enrocolistin (10%) 1cc/1 liter
B-complex Vitamins (@Lysovit 1gm/2 liter)
v) Brooder temperature should be kept at 90-95F with a 5Freduction weekly, till it come down at 75 F. This temperature should be recorded at the height of about two inches above the litter on the outer edge.
vi) Farm manager should be present and ever alert, count the number of the chicks, closely regulates temperature of shed and of the brooder and above all observes closely, all requirements of birds.